Just like a massive iceberg jutting out of the ocean, many of cancer's genetic underpinnings remain hidden under the surface, impossible to predict or map from above. The foreboding shadows and shapes that appear on CT scans and MRIs – and even in the field that doctors see when they zoom in to look at cancer cells under a high-powered microscope – are just the tip of the iceberg. Penn Medicine's new Center for Personalized Diagnostics, a joint initiative of the department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine in the Perelman School of Medicine and the Abramson Cancer Center, is diving deeper into each patient's tumor with next generation DNA sequencing. These specialized tests can refine patient diagnoses with greater precision than standard imaging tests and blood work, all with an aim to broaden treatment options and improve their efficacy. "We're using the most advanced diagnostic methods to unlock cancer's secrets," says David B. Roth, MD, PhD, chairman of the department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. "A tumor's genomic profile is the most critical piece of information for an oncologist to have when they're deciding what therapy to recommend. The results of tests in the Center for Personalized Diagnostics reveal a genetic blueprint of each patient's tumor that is as discrete and singular as a fingerprint."