Lenalidomide is an active treatment for multiple myeloma (MM) and is increasingly used as part of the initial treatment of this disease. Recent reports have suggested decreases in the number of CD34+ cells collected and increases in the failure rate among patients whose initial therapy contained lenalidomide when mobilized with G-CSF alone. A retrospective data analysis of 364 patients with MM who underwent stem cell mobilization and attempted harvest at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between January 2002 and December 2007 was performed. Forty-three of the patients received lenalidomide in their induction regimen, and were mobilized with either CY and G-CSF or G-CSF alone. The number of apheresis cycles and the failure rate were lower, whereas the mean number of collected stem cells was higher in patients who were mobilized with CY and G-CSF in comparison with G-CSF alone. This suggests that lenalidomide does not prevent the harvest of adequate numbers of CD34 cells for autologous stem cell transplant, but mobilization with G-CSF and CY may be required to obtain adequate numbers of stem cells. Finally, in our study, the number of lenalidomide cycles did not correlate with stem cell yield.
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